Black Peruvian or Afroperuvian?

Carlos O. López Schmidt
Translated by Systran

Antecedents: In III the Regional Conference of the Americas, the enslaved descendants of those African decided to take the name that vindicates its origin and it identifies them like human beings with a common origin, taking the name from Afrodescendants. "... To enter black and to leave afrodescendientes in III the CMCR, it was not a simple desire, this time we and for always entered to have left ..." , he affirmed to Romero Rodriguez, director of the Latin American Strategic Alliance and the Caribbean.

Often, even some organizations who have afroperuanos between their members, ask to us, so that we must denominate itself afroperuanos, I will try, in this opportunity to respond with simple arguments, beyond discussing the exact origin of "the black" term, and of the different theories that try to explain it; for it she is enough to remember the description that the dealers did when entering port: ”… between the merchandize, objects and brought animals of distant earth, they appear 20 barrels of water, 18 horses, 60 black, 12 furniture of fine wood, etc.

There is another important reason by which the descendants of those enslaved we decided to be called afrodescendientes, as she is, to vindicate our origin and to be located like human beings with a past and a common origin. For some it is not easy to understand it. On more than one ocassion we have discussed on the matter without repairing that in this our multicultural Peru, formed by Peruvian pertaining to different ethnic groups, there is no other to which she identifies herself to him by the color of his skin. When we talked about Peruvian originating of she walks, we say "Andean"; if of amazonía, "amazonian"; therefore if we say descendants of African, we must say, "afroperuanos".
She does not fit doubt that the subject of racism, discrimination and exclusion goes beyond the used terminology, but we think that by some side she must begin to unroll the hank.

In order to illustrate better the subject and to indicate accurately how she is that “the black” term was and will be always a term imposed by the esclavizador, we transcribed an article appeared in the newspaper the Republic of the 6 of September of 1987 in the column “the trunk of Melquíades”.

Of ingas and mandingas

Probably it is Peru where the mixture and the racial conflict occur with greater sharpness than in the rest of American nations. A peculiar relation of "the chaste ones of the New Spain " was presented in Century XVIII.
  There am the relation here:

Of ingas and mandingas

  • Of Spanish and India , mestizo.
  • Of mestizo and Spanish, pure-blooded.
  • Of pure-blooded and Spanish, Spanish.
  • Of Spanish and black, mulato .
  • Of Spanish and mulato, morisco.
  • Of Spanish and morisca, albino .
  • Of Spanish and albino, it returns back .
  • Of Indian and it returns back, wolf .
  • Of wolf and India, zambayo .
  • Of zambayo and India , cambujo .
  • Of cambujo and mulata, albarazado .
  • Of albarazado and mulata, barcino
  • Of barcino and mulata, coyote .
  • Of coyote and India , chamizo .
  • Of chamizo and racially mixed, coyote .
  • Of coyote and racially mixed, you are there .
  • Of wolf and Chinese, jíbaro.
  • Of cambujo and India , zambayo .
  • Of zambayo and she-wolf, calpamulato .
  • Of calpamulato and cambuja, tente in the air .
  • Of tente in the air and mulata, I do not understand to you .
  • Of I do not understand to you and India , returns back .

After knowledge that they classified to us as if we were animals, I do not believe that it is left a single Afroperuano or Afroperuano that wish to continue being called "black, wolf, coyote or albarazado".

Carlos O. López Schmidt

Here the different theories: those that they indicate that apparently one rather did not talk about to the color of the skin of the enslaved ones, because the most exact term had been "brown", but a species of jail that was in the boats that dealt enslaved or to the Nigger river by where they transported them, another theory indicates that the term came from the necessity to undress to the enslaved ones of its condition for being human and to justify the esclavización before the catholic church and its own consciences. To talk about to the enslaved ones like Zwaghili , the Congo, Mandinga, etc., had meant that were human beings and before that, the catholic church had not been able to become of the fat Vista before the terrible treatments and tortures that would proferían to the enslaved ones and he himself Fray Bartholome de las Casas had had to regret to have impelled that terrible human commerce ("… to recommend the import of African black slaves to release to the Indians of the unavoidable works…". Fray Bartholome de las Casas).

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